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DevOps Engineer Interview Questions

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Q1: Difference Between DevOps & Agile?

DevOps Agile
Testing Continuously Testing as early as often possible
Test Automates almost everything Test automates as much as possible
Integration is continuous & testing is mandatory Integration is continuous & testing steps forward
Potentially code shift after every integration Potentially code shift at the sprint end.
It helps as the bridge between many cross-functional teams The gap between these teams are bridged in daily scrum calls
Aligns Ops with stability Aligns development with business priorities
Ops as deployment are just small part of ops. It is the link b/n design thinking & DevOps

Q2: What is the need for DevOps?
Many advantages of quick feedback from customers, the better quality of software, etc. which in turn leads to high customer satisfaction. To achieve this, companies are required to:

1. Increase deployment frequency
2. The lower failure rate of new releases
3. The shortened lead time between fixes
4. Faster mean time to recovery in the event of new release crashing

DevOps fulfills all these requirements and helps in achieving seamless software delivery. You can give examples of companies like Etsy, Google and Amazon which have adopted DevOps to achieve levels of performance that were unthinkable even five years ago. They are doing tens, hundreds or even thousands of code deployments per day while delivering world class stability, reliability and security.

Q3: What are the major Open Source DevOps Tools?

Here are the major devops tools using in the industry:

Nagios (& Icinga), Monit, ELKJenkinsDockerAnsibleGitHubVagrantContinuous DeliveryContinuous IntegrationGradle, etc…

Q4: DevOps Toolchain:

Code — code development and review, source code management tools, code merging
Build — continuous integration tools, build status
Test — continuous testing tools that provide feedback on business risks
Package — artifact repository, application pre-deployment staging
Release — change management, release approvals, release automation
Configure — infrastructure configuration and management, Infrastructure as Code tools
Monitor — applications performance monitoring, end–user experience
Some categories are more essential in a DevOps toolchain than others; especially continuous integration (e.g. Jenkins) and infrastructure as code (e.g. Puppet).
Source: Wikipedia

Q5: What different types of testing need to be carried out on a software system, and what tools would you use to achieve this testing?
Well for starters, you probably would want to test that your configurations are correct before and after making changes. Maybe you should try out ScriptRock.

Q6: Explain your understanding and expertise on both the software development side and the technical operations side of an organization you’ve worked for in the past?
DevOps engineers almost always work in a 24/7 business-critical online environment. I was adaptable to on-call duties and able to take up real-time, live-system responsibility. I successfully automated processes to support continuous software deployments. I have experience with public/private clouds, tools like Chef or Puppet, scripting and automation with tools like Python and PHP, and a background in AGILE.

Q7: Discuss your experience building bridges between IT Ops, QA and development?
DevOps is all about effective communication and collaboration. I’ve been able to deal with production issues from the development and operations sides, effectively straddling the two worlds. I’m less interested in finding blame or playing the hero than I am with ensuring that all of the moving parts come together.

Q8: What’s your career objective in your role as a DevOps engineer?
My passion is breaking down the barriers and building and improving processes, so that the engineering and operations teams work better and smarter. That’s why I love DevOps. It’s an opportunity to be involved in the entire delivery system from start to finish.

Q9: What testing is necessary to insure a new service is ready for production?
DevOps is all about continuous testing throughout the process, starting with development through to production. Everyone shares the testing responsibility. This ensures that developers are delivering code that doesn’t have any errors and is of high quality, and it also helps everyone leverage their time most effectively.

Q10: Listout the agile methodology of DevOps.
DevOps is a process
Agile is same as DevOps.
A separate group for are framed.
It is problem-solving.
Developers managing production
DevOps is development-driven release management

Q11: What are the advantages of DevOps?
Technical benefits:

Continuous software delivery
Less complex problems to fix
Faster resolution of problems

Business benefits:
Faster delivery of features
More stable operating environments
More time available to add value (rather than fix/maintain)

Q12: What are the core operations of DevOps in terms of development and Infrastructure?
The core operations of DevOps:
Application development
Code developing
Code coverage
Unit testing
Packaging

Deployment With infrastructure
Provisioning
Configuration
Orchestration
Deployment

Q13: Which are the areas where DevOps are implemented?
Production Development
IT Operations development
Creation of the production feedback and its development

Q14: What is the popular scripting language of DevOps?
Python.

Q15: Devops Tools Infographics:

Devops Engineer Interview Questions

Q16: How DevOps is helpful to developers?
To rectify the bug and implement new features quickly.
It provides the clarity of communication among team members.

Q17: What is DevOps engineer’s duty with regards to Agile development?
DevOps engineer work very closely with Agile development teams to ensure they have an environment necessary to support functions such as automated testing, continuous Integration and continuous Delivery. DevOps engineer must be in constant contact with the developers and make all required parts of environment work seamlessly.

Q17: Is continuous delivery related to the dev-ops movement? How so?

Absolutely. In any organization where there is a separate operations department, and especially where there is an independent QA or testing function, we see that much of the pain in getting software delivered is caused by poor communication between these groups, exacerbated by an underlying cultural divide. Apps is measured according to throughput, and ops is measured according to stability. Testing gets it in the neck from both sides, and like release management, is often a political pawn in the fight between apps and ops. The point of dev-ops is that developers need to learn how to create high-quality, production-ready software, and ops needs to learn that Agile techniques are actually powerful tools to enable effective, low-risk change management. Ultimately, we’re all trying to achieve the same thing – creating business value through software – but we need to get better at working together and focusing on this goal rather than trying to optimize our own domains. Unfortunately, many organizations aren’t set up in a way that rewards that kind of thinking.  According to Forrester.

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DevOps Tools :

  1. What all major CI tools?
  2. What all Virtualization Tools?
  3. What all major Containerization Tools?
  4. What all major OS Installation Provisioning?
  5. What all major Configuration Management Tools?
  6. What all major Provisioning Tools?
  7. What all major Monitoring, Alerting, logging and Trending Tools?
  8. What all major Test Automation Tools?
  9. What all major unit testing Tools?
  10. What all major functional testing Tools?
  11. What all major code coverage tools?
  12. What all major code review tools?
  13. What all major Continuous Delivery Tools?
  14. What all major Build Tools?
  15. Provide list of most commonly used compilers?
  16. Provide list of most commonly used scripting laguages? Perl vs Python when to use what?
  17. What all major Collaboration Tools?
  18. What all major planning tools?
  19. How you would be choosing the DevOps tools?

Virtualization :

  1. What is virtulaization?
  2. Why virtualization is gaining popularity?
  3. Provide Types of Virtualization?
  4. What is Hardware or Server Virtualization?
  5. Explain Network virtualization?
  6. Expalin Storage Virtualization?
  7. Explan Application Virtualization?
  8. What is ESX and ESXi? Explain the ESX architechture?
  9. How to VM on ESXi server using vSphere client?
  10. How to deploy a VM using template and CLI?
  11. How you can automate the VM deployment in an ESX enviroment?
  12. What are major Diffrences between ESX and Hyper-V?

Cloud :

  1. What is “Cloud”?
  2. What is cloud computing?
  3. What are the important Characteristics of cloud computing?
  4. How can you use the cloud?
  5. What is SaaS (Software-as-a-Service)?
  6. What is PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service)?
  7. What is IaaS (Infrastructure-as–a-Service)?
  8. Diffrentiate Private Cloud, Public Cloud, Hybrid Cloud and Community Cloud?
  9. What are the Benefits of cloud computing?
  10. What are the Risks/Challenges related to Cloud Computing?
  11. Then there may be some questions arround AWS / Azure
  12. What is AWS?
  13. How does auto scaling work?
  14. How to access and manage cloud infrastructure using AWS?
  15. Explain AWS infrastcrure?
  16. Compare AWS and Azure?

Vagrant & Ansible:

  1. How you create a new image using vagrant?
  2. What is Ansible?
  3. What is the diff between vagrant amd Ansible?
  4. What is Ansible Playbook?
  5. What is Ansible tower?
  6. What is Ansible Inventory?
  7. How to install and configure Ansible on Control Machine?
  8. What is Ansible modules?
  9. How to use Ansible from the command line?
  10. How does Ansible work?

SCM :

  1. What is SCM?
  2. Why we need SCM?
  3. What are the Building blocks of Software Configuration Management (SCM) system?
  4. What is Version Control System (VCS)?
  5. Why use version control?
  6. What are the Types of Version Control Systems?
  7. How you would choose a Version Control System?
  8. Explain Git Architecture?
  9. Explain Git branching model?
  10. What’s Inside .git directory?
  11. How you install and configure Git?
  12. What is git hooks, how to use them?
  13. What git version, client you have used?
  14. How to create a repo?
  15. How you add and commit to a repo?
  16. How you push and gets update to\from a reomote repo?
  17. How you create, delete and rename a branch?
  18. How you merge a branch to other?
  19. How you tag, what are the types of tags you have?
  20. What is The make utility
  21. What is a Makefile?
  22. How to craete and Write Makefile?
  23. What is Apache Maven
  24. How Maven works?
  25. How you install and configure Maven?
  26. What is POM?
  27. How you create a Maven Project 236
  28. Explain Maven Build lifecycles?
  29. Explain Maven Repositories?
  30. Scritping excercise in Python

Jenkins :

  1. What is Jenkins?
  2. What can Jenkins do? it benefits?
  3. Why Jenkins as CI tools what all alternative you have?
  4. How to design Distributed build System using Jenkins?
  5. How to install Jenkins Masters?
  6. Explain Jenkins – Administration?
  7. How to Set up a Slave Node?
  8. Explain enkins – Plugins, Provide some of the most commonly used plug-ins?
  9. How to setup a job in Jenkins?
  10. Explain Jenkins Job – Freestyle Project?
  11. Explain Jenkins Job – MultiJob Project?
  12. Explain Jenkins Job – Pipeline Project 310
  13. How to configure notifications in Jenkins?
  14. How does Jenkins fail or pass the builds?
  15. How does Log Parser work how to enable?
  16. Explain Backup and restore using Jenkins?
  17. How you move Jenkins master from one server to another server?
  18. Explain Security in Jenkins?

Continuous Deployment and Delivery

  1. What is the difference between Continuous Delivery and Deployment?
  2. Explain Benefits of Continuous Delivery?
  3. Explain Benefits of Continuous Deployment?

Database

  1. Explain DevOps and Databases?
  2. Difference between SQL and No SQL database?
  3. How you can automate deployment of databse changes?

Continous Verification?

  1. Explain TDD and BDD?
  2. Explain Continuous Testing Perspective in DevOps and Agile?
  3. How we can achive change driven testing?
  4. Diff between TDD and BDD?

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